Guides for Authors

Alif Guides for Authors

Consult MLA Handbook 9th edition. Examples below are from this edition:

In-text Citations

  • For references inside the article, use parenthetical citations.

  • Work by less than three authors: (Dorris and Erdrich 23)

  • Work by three or more authors: (Burdick et al. 45)

  • Author with more than one work: (Jacobs, The Pleasures [short title] 23)

  • Work published online: (Chan)

Works Cited                       

Make sure to include full bibliographic information for each works cited entry, paying special attention to punctuation:

  • Book by less than 3 authors: Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford UP, 2011.

  • Book by 3 or more authors: Burdick, Anne, et al. Digital Humanities. MIT P, 2012.

  • Edited book by less than 3 editors: Holland, Merlin, and Rupert Hart-Davis, editors. The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde. Henry Holt, 2000.

  • Edited book by 3 or more editors: Baron, Sabrina Alcorn, et al., editors. Agent of Change: Print Culture Studies after Elizabeth L. Eisenstein. U of Massachusetts P/Center for the Book, Library of Congress, 2007.

Translated Book

  • Neruda, Pablo. Canto General. Translated by Jack Schmitt, U of California P, 1991.


  • Njus, Jesse. Performing the Passion: A Study on the Nature of Medieval Acting. 2010. Northwestern U, PhD dissertation.

Chapter in a Book

  • Dewar, James A., and Peng Hwa Ang. "The Cultural Consequences of Printing and the Internet." Agent of Change: Print Culture Studies after Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, edited by Sabrina Alcorn Baron et al., U of Massachusetts P/Center for the Book, Library of Congress, 2007, pp. 365-77.

Article Published in a Journal/Periodical

  • Baron, Naomi S. "Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media." PMLA, vol. 128, no. l, Jan. 2013, pp. 193-200.

Lecture Address, Conference Talk, or Presentation

  • Atwood, Margaret. “Silencing the Scream.” Boundaries of the Imagination Forum. MLA Annual Convention, 29 Dec. 1993, Royal York Hotel, Toronto.

Electronic/Online Sources

  • When using an electronic source form the internet, copy the URL in full from your web browser and omit http:// or https://. Try to provide the DOI or Permalink if possible (including http:// or https://).

Article Published on an Online Journal/Periodical

  • Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000. Project Muse, https://doi:10.1353/pmc.2000.0021.

Article Posted on a Website

  • Hollmichel, Stefanie. "The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital and Print." So Many Books, 25 Apr. 2013,

Audio/Visual Sources

  • If a source such as a film, television episode, or performance has many contributors, include the ones most relevant to your project, stating their role after their name(s).


  • Kuzui, Fran Rubel, director. Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Twentieth Century Fox, 1992.

Live Performance

  • Lefevre, Robin, director. Heartbreak House. By George Bernard Shaw, performances by Philip Bosco and Swoosie Kurtz, Roundabout Theatre Company, 1 Oct. 2006, American Airlines Theatre, New York.

TV Episode

  • “Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whendon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

Radio Program

Video/Song on a Website

  • "Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Unaired Pilot 1996." YouTube, uploaded by Brian Stowe, 28 Jan. 2012,, type of medium (SoundCloud, Facebook post).


Endnotes should be restricted to additional non-bibliographic information only and should be typed as text (that is, do not use automatic computer electronic footnote facilities).